Heather Frances J.D. reports:
"Bylaws act as an organization’s governing rules, and they are appropriate for many types of organizations, including corporations and nonprofits...Bylaws rarely have to meet a certain format, but there are some topics bylaws commonly address...State laws regarding bylaws vary, and your state’s laws may not describe the exact contents of an organization’s bylaws. This allows an organization to adapt bylaws that work well for that organization...Though organizations typically do not have to file their bylaws with the state, they may do so to make them a public record. State law may require an organization to keep its bylaws on file at the corporation’s main office...Generally, bylaws can be in any format and can contain any terms allowed under state law. Many states allow bylaws to contain anything that isn’t illegal...Typically, bylaws contain a description of the responsibilities of corporate officers, the number of directors that sit on the organization’s board, how board and shareholder meetings are conducted, the authority of each leader of the company and termination provisions when the corporation decides to dissolve...Bylaws are not set in stone, and the contents and format can be changed periodically as needed. Often, it is a good idea for an organization to look at its bylaws periodically to keep them relevant to the organization’s current operations. Bylaws themselves typically contain provisions describing how they can be amended, but this often can be in any way that works for the organization...If your organization intends to register for nonprofit status, you must have bylaws. But, even if you do not intend to register as a nonprofit, you could be violating your state’s laws by not having bylaws. Even if your state does not require bylaws, your organization lacks basic operating guidelines when you do not have bylaws. This could mean your company’s operations are controlled by state law rather than a customized set of bylaws that fits your company’s unique needs."
Alyssa Sellors reports:
"Analytical and argumentative essays require different approaches. When you're asked to analyze something...you are being asked to examine and evaluate the work to answer some how or why questions. When you're asked to make an argument, you must investigate a topic, collect, generate and evaluate evidence, then establish a position. In both cases, the thesis statement should always communicate to your reader what to expect from your essay...An analytical essay explores and attempts to answer the hows or whys that emerge with a particular topic or issue. Analyzing requires you to break down a subject into its component parts for examination, so your thesis statement should not only present your topic, [but] it should also communicate how you will analyze it. Essentially, the reader should understand the relationship among the components being examined and how those relationships reveal something about the issue...In a literary analysis essay, you're still answering a how or why question, but you're answering those questions by examining elements of a piece of literature. This may require you [to] identify a major theme and show readers how this theme is prevalent in the work, why the author presents this theme to readers or maybe how this theme impacts the plot and character development...When writing an argumentative essay, a clear and defined thesis statement should explain why the topic is important and why readers should care. The thesis statement should not be so broad that readers cannot identify your position, nor so narrow that your position cannot fully be argued. If an argumentative thesis statement doesn't assert a defined position on an issue, the essay fails to achieve the goal of argumentation -- the reader cannot agree or disagree with a statement that isn't arguable...Whether writing an analytical or argumentative essay, the thesis statement should always be arguable, clear and concise. If the thesis statement does not clearly communicate the topic and purpose of the writing, your readers may feel confused as to the direction or purpose of your essay. Another similarity is the need for research. Before writing either an analytical or [an] argumentative essay, it's important to do your research, especially if the topic is complex. The more facts at your disposal, the better informed you are and the better argument or analysis you can achieve."
C. Taylor reports:
"If you wish to make diagonal text in Microsoft Word, the text should reside in a text box or as a separate WordArt object. Creating these text formats allows you to rotate the text without altering the rest of your document. WordArt is better when you desire a dramatic, graphical display of text. Text boxes are better when you want the text to have a normal appearance. Most text boxes have a border, but this border can be deleted for seamless integration within your other text...Click the Insert tab in Microsoft Word...Click Text Box in the Text group and select your preferred text box style. Alternatively, click WordArt and select your preferred graphical style...Type the text you want to make diagonal...Click and drag the green circle above the text box or WordArt shape to rotate the object. Hold the 'Shift' key to constrain the rotation to larger increments. Release your mouse button when you have your desired diagonal angle. Alternatively, click the Rotate icon from the Arrange group and enter a specific degree of rotation in the Rotation field. Click 'OK' to save your settings...Click and drag the border around the text box or WordArt shape to relocate the text...Right-click the text box border and select Format Shape. Click Line Color from the left pane and select No Line from the right pane. Click 'Close' to remove the border."
Isaiah David reports:
"An analogy compares two unlike things to illustrate common elements of both. An analogy essay is an extended analogy, which explains one thing in considerable depth by comparing it to another. Analogy essays can be used to discuss nearly anything, as long as the writer can find a comparison that fits...Come up with an analogy. One half of the analogy is the thing being explained, while the other half is the explainer...Draw a vertical line down the middle of a piece of paper to divide it in half. On one half, write characteristics of the explainer, and on the other half, the explained. Try to match up the characteristics...Write a paragraph discussing the explainer. Start with a statement like 'Growing up is like learning to ride a bike.' Then explain the stages of learning to ride a bike...Write a paragraph discussing the explained. Start with a statement that gives an overview of what the two share. In the example above, you might say something like 'Growing up also involves getting greater and greater freedom as you become more confident.' Then explain the steps of the explained in a way that parallels the explainer...Discuss the differences. Sometimes there is a very important aspect of the explained that doesn't match up with the explainer...You may want to draw attention to this important distinction."
Brenna Swanston reports:
"Running a retail business means finding products you want to sell from manufacturers you want to work with – and convincing those manufacturers they want to work with you as well...If you're running a wholesale distribution business, you want to convince the manufacturer that you're the best possible connection between it and retail sellers. You'd likely be selling yourself as the sole distributor of the product in question, so how you present yourself in the initial distribution rights request letter is of the utmost importance. You want to appear professional, knowledgeable and receptive. If you're running a retail distribution business and your customers are members of the general public, rather than other retailers, it's your job to convince the manufacturer that your retail business gets enough foot traffic and draws the right crowd to justify giving you distribution rights for the product in question. Again, it's important to sell yourself as a professional...If a manufacturer sees that your email address is linked to a free Google, Yahoo or Hotmail account, the contact might think your business isn't established enough to warrant its own domain name. Invest in an email service for your business to help boost your credibility...There is nothing wrong with sending a hardcopy letter by postal mail, either, providing that you have professional letterhead with which to send it. Whether your communication is 'dead tree' or digital, the same standards of professional business correspondence apply...Fill that email subject line with something indicating that you're seeking a relationship with the manufacturer that will benefit it and that it'd be worth a person's time to open your email and read it all the way through. 'Retail distributor request' – it's short and simple and announces, 'I want to give you business.'...Use a salutation and a respectful signoff. Remember that though you're making a request, you're also making a sale – a sale of your business' brand and reliability. Inform the potential client of what your business can do for its business, and ask for details regarding what it looks for in a distributor.
Here's what to include in your letter:
Annabelle Lee reports:
"The basic structure of an essay includes the introduction, the body and the conclusion. Each part has some basic requirements that need to be met. Essays need to be focused on one topic and present the material in a logical order. Each essay is different in keeping with the subject you are addressing. Writing essays also requires you to write in context. This requires making some decisions about the essay before beginning the research and writing phases...Determine your audience to decide which tone you want your writing to take by asking yourself some questions. For whom are you writing? What information are you trying to impart to them? Why do you want them to know this? What is their education level? Focus on how you want them to react to your essay. Are you trying to make them think about something? Are you trying to educate them about a topic? Keep the answers to these questions in mind when you research and write your essay. This will keep you on track and in context. Do not deviate, as essays should be about one topic and viewpoint only...Write your thesis statement to include in the introduction. It does not have to be the last sentence in your introduction. The thesis statement must clearly define the point or argument you will be making in your essay. Write the introduction to introduce the readers to the topic. Grab their attention so they will wish to continue reading the essay...The introduction can be more than one paragraph long if necessary to educate the reader about the background of the topic or to define the topic. Create the body of your essay. It should be two to four paragraphs long. Each paragraph should be able to stand independently. The body should include the main argument or idea and supporting examples. All the paragraphs should be connected to one another either with an idea or [with] transition words. Refer to your thesis statements in the body of the essay by referring to key words or ideas in it. Write the final paragraph, the conclusion of your essay, by summarizing your point briefly and tying everything together. Do not bring up any new ideas in the [conclusion. This] will be the last opportunity to influence or educate your readers. Make sure you are leaving them with the final conclusion that is supported by the context of your writing."
Cheryl Grace Myers reports:
"The salary for a closed-caption writer starts at $40,000 and some make up to $140,000 a year. The American Disabilities Act (ADA) requires broadcasting networks to produce closed-captioning for those with disabilities. With new technology such as HDTV and [online] television broadcasting, the demand for these writers will continue to increase. Several demographics need closed-captioning besides the hearing[-]impaired. Some of those include English learning viewers and public television viewers in places such as restaurants and bars. Train for a lucrative writing career in this field by following these steps. Evaluate your talents. See if you have the skills necessary to keep up with the job's demands. Closed-caption writers have a natural talent of paying attention to detail. You must speak fluent English and an extended vocabulary is a plus, but not necessary. Fast, accurate typing skills are required, but those skills can develop during your training. Attend an approved school. Approximately 60 to 70 credits will earn you certification from a certified court reporting school. The National Court Reporters Association (NCRA) sets the standards for professionalism in this field. The NCRA website has a list of schools that meet their training requirements. Upon graduation, you will be NCRA certified. Get certified for closed-caption writing. After completion of an NCRA certification, apply for the Certified Broadcast Captioner (CBC) certification. This additional certification professionally recognizes the closed-captioning field, and sets additional requirements for those writers. Get experience. Most companies seek at least two years['] experience in closed-caption or real-time writing. To get your experience, apply for a job as a captioning assistant...The NCRA has job listings for closed-caption jobs, including those needing captioning assistance jobs...Find a temporary transcription job during your training to gain some experience and prepare you for this type of career. Many of those jobs are available for online content. Get firsthand knowledge of the deaf and hard of hearing community by corresponding with them throughout your training. Understand the culture and disability so you can see the need and importance of a closed-caption writer, and gain valuable insight. Consider talking to other viewers in different demographics. Closed-captioning is not only for the hearing-impaired. Children, non-English speaking, and family of the hearing[-]impaired use closed-captions. By talking with them, your training will be more valuable and you will gain practical insight over the technical insight...Financial aid is available to those who qualify for training in accredited court reporting schools. Many community colleges offer court reporter training so education costs will be more affordable and financial aid may cover your education. Ask the school if they offer the CBC certification. If not, you may have to make additional arrangements and this could include additional costs. If you do not qualify for financial aid through government programs, you may need another form of payment. Make payment arrangements or apply for other types of aid early."
Josh Fredman reports:
"Your company can potentially save a lot of money on purchases, but when you get into negotiations with your suppliers you need to be able to write a good letter. Business negotiations have a hard edge to them -- after all, your discount would come at the supplier’s expense -- so it’s important to strike an amiable tone. Don’t pretend...you’re doing the supplier a favor by asking for a discount. Don’t bare your fangs, and don’t be rude. Be cordial, honest and matter-of-fact...Business relationships can range from the cozy and familiar to the outright hostile. A good negotiation strategy must consider the dynamic you have with your supplier, her style and preferences and even regional customs. Sometimes, opening negotiations with a written letter can seem cold -- and that won’t help you get your discount. Use your best judgment to decide whether to first broach the topic in person or over the phone. In most cases a written letter is the way to go, but just be aware that choosing to send a letter at all is a strategic decision...Don’t waste any time getting to the point. State your general request for a discount in the first or second sentence of the letter. Also identify the particular contract, goods or services you want to be discounted. Hold back for the moment in specifying exactly how much you want, and on an itemized list of discount requests if applicable, because you’ll get to all that when you press your case. Instead, make the opening paragraph short and punchy, so the supplier gets onto the same page right away and knows what to expect from the rest of your letter...When you press your case, focus on your value as a customer. If your two companies already do business together, quote some high-level purchasing figures. You also can reference the length of your relationship as a way of showing off your reliability as a customer. If the supplier has rivals that offer equally serviceable products at competitive prices, make a point of it. You can also focus to a lesser extent on how the discount would benefit your company, but if so[,] try to find an angle that shows that whatever helps you will ultimately help the supplier too...After you’ve made your case, it’s time to put a dollar value on the table. Ask for your specific discount amount, be it in percentages or dollars. Itemize your discount request if necessary. When you state your offer, aim for a number that respects both your costs of doing business and the supplier’s. Give him an offer that, if he wanted to, he could responsibly accept on the spot...[B]y making a reasonable offer in the beginning you cut the risk of being denied summarily. If you anticipate that he’ll make a counteroffer, it’s okay to inflate your numbers, but keep it in proportion."
Kate Beck reports:
"Subordinate ideas, sometimes called a subordinate clause or a dependent clause, can help you prove or establish the importance of the main idea in your sentence. Knowing how to identify a subordinate idea will help you strengthen your writing skills...Certain words and phrases can help you identify the subordinate idea in a sentence. Sometimes referred to as a coordinating conjunction, subordinate conjunction or subordinate transition, identifiers may include words such as 'although,' 'if,' 'since,' 'until,' 'because' and 'while.' You may also identify a subordinate idea with phrases like 'even though,' 'rather than,' 'provided that' and 'insomuch as.'...In the following sentence, identify the subordinate idea: 'The girl tried the cake, which had too much icing.' In this example, 'The girl tried the cake' forms the main idea. The phrase 'which had too much icing' makes the subordinate idea. This gives additional information to the reader, offering details about the main idea, but it does not make up the main idea itself."
Nicole Vulcan reports:
"Before you begin a career, it helps to have some experience first...Landing a good internship often requires you to create a resume. But forget the boilerplate resume. Even a summer internship resume has to be directly tailored to the company...Research the company to find out as much as you can about its products, culture, market and hiring needs. Every resume should be tailored to the company to which you're applying, so the best way to do that is to learn as much as you can about the company. Read the company's website and blogs as well as media articles to learn more about it. Also, get a full understanding of the internship position so you can tailor your resume accordingly. Talk to the career counselor at your college to find out any other information you can about the internship or the company...Type your full contact information at the top of the resume, including your name, postal address, phone number and email address. Take a second to consider which address you're using. If you're not going to be living in the dorms or your college apartment by summertime, don't include that address. You don't want mail coming to a place where you're not living. Instead, use the address where you'll be living that summer...Create an 'Objective' section under your contact information section. In one or two sentences, state the name of the internship, the [company and] a special trait, training or skill you have that will make you a good candidate for the internship. If you aim to get a job with the company following the internship, don't be afraid to mention it in the 'Objective' section. The employer might appreciate your frankness and ambition...Create a 'Skills' section under the 'Objective' section, and then create a bullet point list that details some of your best skills. Your research into the ideal intern will give you an idea about which of your skills you should highlight. Detail five to 10 of your best skills -- and any brief information about how you obtained those skills -- in a bullet point list...Create an 'Accomplishments' section under the Skills section. Summer interns are not necessarily expected to have a long list of work-related accomplishments, but you might have been awarded things like the 'Most Likely to Succeed' award in high school, been part of the National Honor Society, made the Dean's [List or] served as the lead editor at your school newspaper. These accomplishments -- which can include your participation on sports or academic teams -- will demonstrate your ambition and involvement...Create an 'Education' section next. Naturally, you'll list your high school and college attendance. Under the schools, list any key courses you've taken that will apply to the internship in a bullet point list. Also include your grade point average in this section, if it paints you in a good light...Create a 'Work Experience' or 'Internships' section that details the names of the companies and the dates you worked there. If you've interned at a competitor during another summer internship, weigh your options about including it. Some employers might be uneasy about hiring someone from a rival company. For each work or internship experience you do mention, include a sentence or two about your duties while on the job. Be sure to mention any skills or duties that the current internship employer wants to see in its ideal intern."
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